Monthly Archives: October 2013

Video like a pro?

My background is in video, that is what I did my degree in and what I have been dipping my professional toes in and out of since I graduated. I have worked as a freelance, producing and directing music videos and private projects working with seasoned professionals. I have also worked on the commercial side of things, commissioning and producing videos for major global companies. I have even setup and run a full video proposition for a major WPP agency. Throughout my work in the various avenues of video, one of the challenges that my colleagues and I have had to face is a lack of understanding about the skill and discipline that goes into making video and how this is pivotal in creating a good video rather than a poor one. Which is why my heart sank when I saw an article describing Moovly as allowing people to “Create Animated Content like a Pro”.

Firstly I will caveat my thoughts by saying that products like Moovly are a great thing. They enable people to make videos, in this case animations, in an affordable way and with video being one of the stickiest content types on the web this can only be a good thing. But I think it is important to draw a line of distinction between tools like this, which no doubt produce decent looking end results, and the work produced by professionals.

One of the biggest problems for people working in video is getting the uninitiated to understand that it isn’t simply a matter of getting a few mates together with a good idea. It is a discipline and a good video requires the skills of good planning, writing, storyboarding, graphical design, editing…the list goes on. This assumption of simplicity is the same stigma suffered by top digital designers or copywriters, or even developers by those who think that a good website can be created using outofapacketwebsite.com style online wizard tools. Well the end result is almost always something that is below par.

So how do you make a good video then? When we were running the agency video proposition we created a hybrid project management / video production approach:

  1. Initiation
  2. Pre-Production
  3. Production
  4. Post Production
  5. Release

This took the standard stages of the normal production process and added and before and after stage, recognizing the commercial aspects that are required to get a project going and the technical requirements in implementing the content after it is completed. Even if you aren’t undertaking a commercial project, I believe this process is still valid for anyone to go through.

In the Initiation stage we establish the need for the video. What is the purpose? Who is it for? Where will it be featured? What are the actions we want to elicit from watchers? The last question is doubly important if your video is going to sit on a website as ultimately it is a marketing tool seeking to engage your users. But once they have finished watching it you want them to do something and if you don’t consider this as part of the planning then it could be an investment down the toilet. So this stage is mainly about the business case and expected outcomes of the project. It is also about establishing the required investment (time and money) and again this is important. Setting out how much you are willing to spend will set your limits for the length of the video, quality of designed elements, time in potentially expensive facilities like studios or editing suites. Even if your project is with mates you will need to factor in transport, locations, equipment, calling in favours, how much beer you owe…it will all add up. This stage is about focussing your mind on what you are trying to achieve and how you can do that within your means.

Once you have established the focus of the project then the real hands on work begins. Pre-Production is where the creative work starts. The most common mistake with video projects is that people rush this stage and don’t fully plan the requirements for Production. This is probably because Production is considered the exciting part, but actually I really enjoy Pre-Production as well. During this stage you will need to be doing the following:

  • Plot key narrative points
  • Write a script (or key script points)
  • Storyboard the key action
  • Plan the production shoots and sessions required
  • Rehearse (if required)
  • Casting and Crew Recruitment

At this point the Initiation stage will start to prove it’s worth. Without a focus and key aims and objectives for the video and its outcomes it is easy to end up going off on a tangent. But with all of this set out from the outset and timelines / budgets keeping you focused in your planning, you should be able to streamline the process and make sure you are making the key important choices for the project.

Production is the stage where all the planning and Pre-Production comes into its own. The only way you can run a good Production phase is knowing exactly what each scene is supposed to look like, but more importantly to know what the scene’s function is. It is this intention that will drive how the scene is directed. Without this in depth understanding you cannot hope to get all the footage you need and will most likely be left leaning on the editor to save you, or having to reconvene for further shoots (and risk the continuity demon popping up its ugly head).

If your approach to the project has been to go renegade and not both planning you also risk not knowing what you have recorded and what you need. A good Producer / Director relationship is the only way to go, with one in charge of running the shoot and one in charge of arranging everything and keeping it running smoothly. When I was doing this I had an excellent colleague and we were able to run like two sides of the same coin. But I have also worked with hopeless Producers who hadn’t done any planning and as a Director this made it almost impossible to get the footage and even harder in the edit suite.

Anyone who knows anything about video will tell you that the real magic happens in the edit as part of the Post Production stage. It is what will make or break a video and is where the skills that take years to learn come in to play. There are so many little tricks of the trade, from the pace of an edit to the after effects applied to it, that make a good editor worth their weight in gold. At this point it is looking back at the intended outcomes that will guide an editor in how they construct a scene. Just looking at comedic re-edits of ‘The Shining’ and others shows you how wrong an edit can go if the intention of the video is not fully understood. This is where the storyboards, narrative plot, script, aims and objectives and the creative vision all come together…not to mention a thorough understanding of the website branding. You don’t want a video that uses after effects that aren’t on brand…little things like this matter! Ultimately if you want a video to represent and work hard for your brand then you want it to mirror your brands look and feel and the tone of voice. Why? Because if the video is features someone other than your own website then you want it to instinctively reflect your brand a not someone else’s.

So then there is Release. This is the stage that most people completely forget but in many ways is the most significant. At this point in the process we would undertake user testing with focus groups to see whether the video is eliciting the responses we want, whether it is enjoyable and holds attention and most important whether it makes sense. This is the last line of defense for your video so if you don’t have a large budget then get your friends around and show them…you can’t afford to find out once your video is live that it isn’t doing the job.

Once you have a video created, re-edited it after feedback, then you need to play it somewhere. This is something that should have been planned in the Initiation stage of the project and there are many ways of doing it. You could use YouTube or Vimeo and embed their player on your website (but you can’t brand their players and you don’t control the end screen and what is linked to – remember, you want to keep people on your message, not send them off to watch other people’s video). You could host the video yourself and use the in built browser players, but this requires a bit of developer know-how. You could have a custom player built, allowing you to track who watches the video and how long for. Another problem with hosting your own video is performance – if you don’t have a streaming ability and the file is large then it may not be a very good experience for viewers and stats show that if a video stutters people are likely not to watch. It would be very annoying to go to all the effort to make a video and then no one watch it. Do you you want a holding slate design so the video looks professional? These are all questions that you need to know the answers to. You also need to think about support – if you want your videos to play in all browsers and devices then you need to have more than just the standard MP4. Think about .FLV/.SWF, OGG and WebM to cover your bases.

So, back to my original point. Moovly and similar tools are all well and good. They will no doubt allow you to put together a half decent video…but this is not a tool that will turn you into a pro videographer over night and if you’re using anything with ‘off the shelf’ parts then your video is not going to be unique anyway. Creating videos is not an easy process. It requires skill and years of experience to get it right…so hats off to all videographers out there.

My advise to anyone who wants to make a pro level video and doesn’t have the background? Take your time. Plan it thoroughly, follow the process above and if you know people who have done it before then ask for advice and help. Assess the tools that are out there as well. Moovly will no doubt provide some of the animation editing you may require, but see if it is right for your project. There are plenty of other tools out there as well. Ultimately, we can all bake a cake by following a recipe and using a mixer…but we aren’t all going to open bakeries tomorrow because we aren’t all Mary Berry…apply the same logic to video!

Who are the social ones?

There is a fascinating phenomenon online which is to do with how people interact with content (the roles they assume). It is not unique to online but is relevant when looking at how you want to disseminate content and knowing who and where to target to have biggest effect. To summarise this lets use Facebook as an example. Generally speaking within Facebook you get 3 types of users:

  • Watchers

This type of user tends to watch their Facebook wall and browse the content others have posted but will not actively respond to it. For example, someone might post a link to an interesting article and this user will go and read the article and read the comments but will not click the ‘like’ link or comment themselves. They are what I would describe as ‘passive’ users of the site.

  • Followers

The next step up from a Watcher is a Follower. This type of user will also watch and read content as it arrives but will also ‘like’ and ‘share’ the content again. A typical interaction would be that a friend posts a humorous photograph so they will ‘like’ it and then ‘share’ it on their own wall. These users are responsible for dissemination of content at rapid speed and are the users that enable ‘viral’ spread. I would describe these users as ‘passive-active’ users.

  • Contributors

The next step up from Followers are Contributors. These are people who get involved with the content and conversations that are going on and respond. A typical interaction in this case would be that a friend posts a comment on their wall and a Contributor will respond, offering their own opinion. This type of user is someone who will willingly offer opinions on subjects they care (and sometimes don’t care) about. It is unusual to have a Contributor that isn’t also a Follower or Creator. A rare example of someone who is just a Contributor though are those described as “trolls”; users who look for things to comment on in order to provoke responses and arguments. I would describe these users as ‘active’ users.

  • Creators

Finally there are Creators. These are users who actively post new content on Facebook that they have created themselves. Often this will be in the form of statuses but can be more such as videos, photos and the like. There tend to be fewer creators than there are other types of user. I describe these users as ‘active-integrated’.

This idea of segregating people into user types is not a new idea. Similar studies have been done in the past such as this study in America. Every way of segregating tends to follow the same theme but why is it important? Well the key thing is to know how these roles work if you want to release your own content into the ‘social media wild’ because if you target the right roles then you will have more success.

An additional factor is the idea of influential users within these roles. A famous person, such as Stephen Fry, who is an active-integrated user will have a huge amount of followers, a large amount of whom will be in the role of ‘Follower’. So if you are able to get him to post about your content, or even contribute to it, then his followers will share this because they are his followers. This is viral in action.

So when planning a marketing campaign for a release, a key action is to identify key influential people who will talk about or repost your content. Ideally you want these influential people to review it in their own words, in the guise of a ‘Creator’. If it is in their own words then their followers will then share this even more willingly and so your content goes viral. The diamond in the rough is to have an influential ‘Creator’ post about your content who has a large amount of influential ‘Contributors’ following them. This results in rapid viral spread as it filters out across the net.

On the flip side, if you don’t actively target people then a lot of your content will fall upon the watchers of the world and just fizzle out. It is entirely possible for content to go viral naturally but if you don’t plan and target then this is much more by luck than judgement. Of course, the most important thing in the end is that your content is interesting, otherwise it will fall flat anyway.

Towing the on-line

Much has been made in recent months of the shift to on demand servicing, particular with the likes of online streaming companies like NetFlix and their high rolling TV programs ‘House of Cards’ and ‘Breaking Bad’. Many of the big networks probably shrugged this off at the time, assuming that streaming companies cannot challenge the established TV industry big names. Indeed, Sky and Virgin Media seem to have been more interested in staving off BT’s foray into Television rather than keeping an eye on this new snake in the grass. So the big names will have been shaken buy the world’s reaction to the hit series ‘Breaking Bad’, which some on social networks are even saying is the greatest TV series ever made. This might be a bit of a stretch but one thing is for certain, everyone wants to watch a show that is only available by NetFlix. Whether or not this is a flash in the pan is yet to be seen, but a line was drawn in the sand in September when NetFlix became the first internet based provider to win an Emmy. Following this BAFTA have announced that they will recognize internet based shows now as well.

Personally, I think this is a sign of things to come. It is no surprise that the first two major series produced by NetFlix were of such high standard. They wanted to make a mark and show that they are serious contenders in the entertainment market, and they have certainly done that. How long it will be before a major blockbuster movie is made for release in the same way remains to be seen…this may be biting off a little more than they could chew currently, but in time who knows.

This interesting development got me reflecting on how the internet has drastically changed our lives in the last couple of decades. At the weekend I helped my parents setup a new computer and dad produced some old CDs, asking if any of them were of any use. One of these was an Encarta Encyclopedia CD and memories came flooding back of a Windows 3.1 PC that ran programs off floppy disks and a CD ROM was the sign of the future. In those days Google hadn’t really been heard of and Wikipedia wasn’t even a glint in Jimmy Wales’ eye. Encarta was a world of discovery that seemed amazing to me. In those days we would all crowd around the hulking computer in the corner and when we wanted to connect to the internet the modem would screech like a dying cat.

How it has changed since those cold dark days when the internet was a rare commodity. Now we are fast relying on it for our daily existence. I no longer wear a watch or carry a diary, instead using my iPhone for both. My media largely exists in the cloud and I can’t remember the last time I wrote a letter, instead using email which some said would never take off. In fact email is possibly going to be the downfall of of postal services, which have unfortunately gotten too expensive to be viable. Last Christmas we finally made the decision not to send cards as the cost to us would have been well over £50 just in stamps!

The digital world has accelerated massively in the last few years. Apple now produce a mainstream laptop in the MacBook Air that doesn’t have a DVD drive, largely because we no longer need install disks. Instead we use an activation code and download the programs over the internet. Similarly, MAXIS have develop the new  SimCity game to be played online, a move that is not unique but was highly publicized due to the popularity of the game. The world is sprinting towards an online existence which is both convenient and full of security risks. I have previously written about an online world that reacts to our ‘profiles’, detected from the mobile devices that we carry around with us (or that are a part of us!). This reality is not far away now, it is just that at the moment most of us interact with the internet still via out computers. But that too is changing. Now we stand in shops and fire up our mobile phone to check prices online before buying. This is behaviour evolving to the environment we now have around us…and also becoming reliant on it.

So what is my point, you may well ask? The world is moving towards a more online existence and with it our behaviour is changing as well. In a very short space of time we have come to rely on the internet to help us with everyday tasks and soon it will become more and more part of our lives. Whether or not this is a good thing is for you to decide, I personally think that by and large it is good. It will be important for each of us to engage with this evolving world, rather than shun it, lest we be left behind. We should be prepared for a change in the way media is delivered to us. Instead of taking it for granted that it will all be through television providers we should factor in entertainment from online sources. And as the online world gains importance we should also be ready for companies that move completely online and forego offline interactions…it will happen.

For my part though I think it is important to also maintain some time for the simpler things in life as well – there will always be a place for a paper back book, a glass of whisky and the sound of the rain on a dark winters night in my life.